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Cyclone

by Jean-Jacques Serra
listing by Gunter Krebs


Origin: ICBM of third generation


In the early sixties, Yangel was successful in the competition opposing the R-9 of Korolev to the UR-200 of Chelomei missiles for the providing of ICBMs of second generation. His two-stage R-16 missile (SS-7 Saddler) was 31 m in height, 3 m diameter and weighed 150 tons. Despite the important accident that occured on first test in October 1960 the R-16 was deployed in 190 silos. A space launcher project derived from the R-16 named 64S2 or Cyclone was abandonned.

The second ICBM of the KB Yantel was the R-26/8K66 missile. It seems that this program did not reach the flight tests phase. (some sources state that R-26 is the ground surface of SS-8)

The third ICBM of the KB Yantel (now NPO Yuzhnoye) in Ukraine was the R-36 /8K67 (SS-9 Scarp). The DoD counted 5 variants of this third generation missile: Mod 1 the original design, Mod 2 the serial model with unique payload. From Mod 3, tested as a FOBS (Fractional Orbit Bomb System), the missile was designated R-36-0/8K69. It was followed by the Mod 4 equipped with 4 MRVs and the Mod 5, an ASAT (AntiSATellite) weapon.

The basic rocket had 2 stages both 3 m diameter wide. The SS-9 Mod 2 was 36 m in height and weighed 190 tons. It was the biggest known missile at that time. The first stage featured a propulsion system with 6 combustion chambers (RD-251) using NTO/UDMH. The engines burned during 120 seconds providing 2450 kN at ground level and 2750 kN in vacuum thrust (Isp = 309 seconds). Four steerable verniers enabled the flight control and the motor thrust balance during the stages separation. The second stage was powered by a two-chambers RD-252 motor burning the same propellants. It provided 883 kN thrust (Isp = 293 seconds) during 125 seconds. Moreover the missile's RV had it's own engine... making the vehicle 3 stages.

The testings went on during several years (1963-65 for Mod 1 & 2, the 1969-70 and 1973 for Mod 4). A total of about 300 missiles were deployed from 1966 on.

2-stage R-36 launchers


In the early sixties two projects of Fractional Orbit Bombardment Systems (FOBS) launchers were being designed by the soviets: the GR-1 (SS-10 Scrag) and the Yantel R-36 in version 3. The former was cancelled after 1965.The second named F1r / SL11 in the US was tested 18 times from Tyuratam between 1966 and 1971: 2 un-official flights in 1966 and 16 Cosmos (including Cosmos 316 which decayed accidentally in the Western USA).

Note: a FOBS-type RV (provided by Khrunichev/KB Saliout) was used in January 1995 for the German & Japanese EXPRESS experiment which was incorrectly orbited by Mu-3S.

The launcher known as F1m / SL-11 was developed as antisatellite system. In a first stage (1968-1970) the same launcher was used from Tyuratam to launch target and interceptors in the Cosmos program. From February 1971 on, targets were launched by Cosmos C1 / SL8 from Plesetsk. The program stopped in 1982.

Meanwhile the launcher would have been equipped on an enhanced second stage for conventional space operations. According to Jane's Space Directory the new motor would provide 956 kN in vacuum (ISp = 324 seconds) during up to 160 seconds. This launcher known as Cyclone 2 (11K79) was used to launch reconnaissance satellites from Tyuratam: Rorsat and Eorsat.

3-stage R-36 launcher: Cyclone 3


In 1977 the two-stage basic model was equipped with a S5M top stage powered by an RD-861 (NTO/UDMH) providing 78 kN thrust during 118 seconds. It could be re-ignited in orbit. In this version Cyclone 3 (11K68) weighs around 185 tons for 39.3 m heigh and a 2.7 m diameter cap.

Launched from Plesetsk it can orbit 3.6 tons in LEO but it is used for satellite in circular 650, 850, 100 or 1500 km altitude:
- civilian satellites: Meteor, Ocean, Intercosmos
- military satellites: SIGINT, geodesy, telecommunications ( Gonets)

Commercial version


A firmed named Satellite Delivery Systems, a subsidiary of Rockwell Aerospace (USA) and Younoye (Ukraine) was founded in 1996 to sell Cyclone launchers.

This launcher which flies from Plesetsk was never used to polar-orbit satellites because is should fly over the US (all polar launches are from Tyuratam). Therefore the Cyclone launcher will get an additional top stage. This stage is built by Youjnoye. Its reignitable motor burns stockable propellant (NTO-UDMH) and was already used more than 50 times for military missions.

Cyclone 3 launches


# Launch id Payload Launch date Status/Comment (orbit in perigee x apogee x inc. x period)
1 77055 Cosmos 921 24 Jun 1977  
2 77095 Cosmos 956 24 Sep 1977  
3 77123 Cosmos 972 27 Dec 1977  
4 78067 Cosmos 1025 [ Tselina-D] 28 Jun 1978  
5 78100 A: Cosmos 1045
B: RS 1
C: RS 2
26 Oct 1978  
6 79011 Cosmos 1076 [ Ocean-E] 12 Feb 1979  
7 80005 Cosmos 1151 [ Ocean-E] 23 Jan 1980  
8 n/a Cosmos (1242) [ Geo-IK #[1a]] 23 Jan 1981 Failure
9 81082 Cosmos 1300 [ Tselina-D] 24 Aug 1981  
10 81093 Auréole 3 21 Sep 1981  
11 81098 Cosmos 1312 [ Geo-IK] 30 Sep 1981  
12 81117 Cosmos 1328 [ Tselina-D] 03 Dec 1981  
13 82085 Meteor 2-8 25 Mar 1982  
14 82059 Cosmos 1378 [ Tselina-D] 10 Jun 1982  
15 82092 Cosmos 1408 [ Tselina-D] 16 Spe 1982  
16 82096 Cosmos 1410 [ Geo-IK] 29 Sep 1982  
17 83037 Cosmos 1455 [ Tselina-D] 23 Apr 1983  
18 83061 Cosmos 1470 [ Tselina-D] 23 Jun 1983  
19 83099 Cosmos 1500 [ Ocean-OE] 28 Sep 1983  
20 83115 Cosmos 1510 [ Geo-IK] 24 Oct 1983  
21 83122 Cosmos 1515 [ Tselina-D] 15 Dec 1983  
22 84013 Cosmos 1536 [ Tselina-D] 08 Feb 1984  
23 84027 Cosmos 1544 [ Tselina-D] 15 Mar 1984  
24 84072 Meteor 2-11 05 Jul 1984  
25 84084 Cosmos 1589 [ Geo-IK] 8 Aug 1984  
26 84105 Cosmos 1602 [ Ocean-OE] 28 Sep 1984  
27 84111 Cosmos 1606 [ Tselina-D] 18 Oct 1984  
28 84120 Cosmos 1612 [Meteor (3-1a)] 27 Nov 1984 Failure: stage 3 failed to reignite
29 85003 Cosmos 1617 - 1622 [ Strela-3] 15 Jan 1985  
30 85009 Cosmos 1626 [ Tselina-D] 24 Jan 1985  
31 85013 Meteor 2-12 06 Feb 1985  
32 85020 Cosmos 1633 [ Tselina-D] 05 Mar 1985  
33 85047 Cosmos 1660 [ Geo-IK] 14 Jun 1985  
34 85058 Cosmos 1666 [ Tselina-D] 08 Jul 1985  
35 85069 Cosmos 1674 [ Tselina-D] 08 Jul 1985  
36 85094 Cosmos 1690 - 1695 [ Strela-3] 09 Oct 1985  
37 85100 Meteor 3-1 24 Oct 1985  
38 85108 Cosmos 1703 [ Tselina-D] 22 Nov 1985  
39 85113 Cosmos 1707 [ Tselina-D] 12 Dec 1985  
40 85119 Meteor 2-13 26 Dec 1985  
41 86006 Cosmos 1726 [ Tselina-D] 17 Jan 1986  
42 86015 Cosmos 1732 [ Geo-IK] 11 Feb 1986  
43 86018 Cosmos 1733 [ Tselina-D] 19 Feb 1986  
44 86034 Cosmos 1743 [ Tselina-D] 15 May 1986  
45 86039 Meteor 2-14 27 May 1986  
46 86046 Cosmos 1758 [ Tselina-D] 16 Jun 1986  
47 86055 Cosmos 1766 [ Ocean-O] 28 Jun 1986  
48 86074 Cosmos 1782 [ Tselina-D] 30 Sep 1986  
49 n/a Cosmos (1786) - (1791) [ Strela-3] 15 Oct 1986 Failure
50 86094 Cosmos 1803 [ Geo-IK] 02 Dec 1986  
51 86097 Cosmos 1805 [ Tselina-D] 10 Dec 1986  
52 86101 Cosmos 1809 18 Dec 1986  
53 87001 Meteor 2-15 05 Jan 1987  
54 87003 Cosmos 1812 [ Tselina-D] 14 Jan 1987  
55 87020 Cosmos 1823 [ Geo-IK] 20 Feb 1987  
56 87024 Cosmos 1825 [ Tselina-D] 03 Mar 1987  
57 87026 Cosmos 1827 - 1832 [ Strela-3] 13 Mar 1987  
58 87038 Cosmos 1842 [ Tselina-D] 27 Apr 1987  
59 87055 Cosmos 1862 [ Tselina-D] 01 Jul 1987  
60 87062 Cosmos 1869 [ Ocean-O] 16 Jul 1987  
61 87068 Meteor 2-16 18 Aug 1987  
62 87074 Cosmos 1875 - 1880 [ Strela-3] 07 Sep 1987  
63 87088 Cosmos 1892 [ Tselina-D] 20 Oct 1987  
64 88001 Cosmos 1908 [ Tselina-D] 06 Jan 1988  
65 88002 Cosmos 1909 - 1914 [ Strela-3] 15 Jan 1988  
66 88005 Meteor 2-17 30 Jan 1988  
67 88020 Cosmos 1933 15 Mar 1988  
68 88046 Cosmos 1950 [ Geo-IK] 30 Apr 1988  
69 88050 Cosmos 1953 [ Tselina-D] 14 Jun 1988  
70 88056 Ocean O1-1 5 Jul 1988  
71 88064 Meteor 3-2 26 Jul 1988  
72 88093 Cosmos 1975 11 Oct 1988  
73 88113 Cosmos 1985 23 Dec 1988  
74 89009 A: Cosmos 1994
B: Cosmos 1995
C: Cosmos 1996
D: Cosmos 1997
E: Cosmos 1998
F: Cosmos 1999
10 Feb 1989  
75 89018 Meteor 2-18 28 Feb 1989  
76 n/a Ocean (2) [ Ocean-O] 6 Jun 1989 Failure: 3rd stage
77 89068 Cosmos 2037 28 Aug 1989  
78 89074 A: Cosmos 2038
B: Cosmos 2039
C: Cosmos 2040
D: Cosmos 2041
E: Cosmos 2042
F: Cosmos 2043
14 Sep 1989  
79 89080 A: Intercosmos 24 (Aktivny-IK)
B: Magion 2
28 Sep 1989  
80 89086 Meteor 3-03 24 Oct 1989  
81 89100 Cosmos 2053 [Radar-Cal-2 #2] 26 Dec 1989  
82 90010 Cosmos 2058 30 Jan 1990  
83 90018 Ocean O1-2 28 Feb 1990  
84 90057 Meteor 2-19 27 Jun 1990  
85 90066 Cosmos 2088 [ Geo-IK] 30 Jun 1990  
86 90070 Cosmos 2090 - 2095 [ Strela-3] 8 Aug 1990  
87 90086 Meteor 2-20 28 Sep 1990  
88 90104 Cosmos 2106 [ Tselina-D] 28 Nov 1990  
89 90114 Cosmos 2114 - 2119 [ Strela-3] 22 Dec 1990  
90 91030 Meteor 3-4 24 Apr 1991  
91 91033 Cosmos 2143 - 2148 [ Strela-3] 16 May 1991  
92 91039 Ocean O1-3 4 Jun 1991  
93 91042 Cosmos 2151 [ Tselina-D] 13 Jun 1991  
94 91056 Meteor 3-05 15 Aug 1991  
95 91068 Cosmos 2157 - 2162 [ Strela-3] 28 Sep 1991  
96 91077 Cosmos 2165 - 2170 [ Strela-3] 12 Nov 1991  
97 91086 A: Intercosmos 25 (Apex)
E: Magion 3
18 Dec 1991  
98 92042 Cosmos 2197, 2198, 2200, 2202 [ Strela-3]
Cosmos 2199,2201 [ Gonets-D]
13 Jul 1992  
99 92068 Cosmos 2211 - 2116 [ Strela-3] 20 Oct 1992  
100 92080 Cosmos 2221 24 Nov 1992  
101 92092 Cosmos 2226 [ Geo-IK] 22 Dec 1992  
102 92094 Cosmos 2228 [ Tselina-D] 25 Dec 1992  
103 93024 Cosmos 2242 16 Apr 1993  
104 93030 A: Cosmos 2245
B: Cosmos 2246
C: Cosmos 2247
D: Cosmos 2248
E: Cosmos 2249
F: Cosmos 2250
11 May 1993  
105 93038 A: Cosmos 2252
B: Cosmos 2253
C: Cosmos 2254
D: Cosmos 2255
E: Cosmos 2256
F: Cosmos 2257
25 Jun 1993  
106 93055 A: Meteor 2-21
B: Temisat
31 Aug 1993  
107 94003 A: Meteor 3-06
B: Tubsat B
25 Jan 1994  
108 94011 A: Cosmos 2268
B: Cosmos 2269
C: Cosmos 2270
D: Cosmos 2271
E: Cosmos 2272
F: Cosmos 2273
12 Feb 1994  
109 94014 Coronas I 2 Mar 1994  
110 n/a Cosmos [2281] [ Tselina-D] 25 May 1994 Failure: 2nd and 3rd stage failed to separate
111 94066 Ocean O1-4 11 Oct 1994  
112 94078 Geo-IK 1 29 Nov 1994  
113 94086 A: Cosmos 2299
B: Cosmos 2300
C: Cosmos 2301
D: Cosmos 2302
E: Cosmos 2303
F: Cosmos 2304
28 Dec 1994  
114 95046 A: Sich 1
Fasat Alfa
31 Aug 1995 Fasat failed to separate from Sich
115 96009 A: Gonets D1-1
B: Gonets D1-2
C: Gonets D1-3
D: Cosmos 2328
E: Cosmos 2329
F: Cosmos 2330
19 Feb 1996 at 00:58 UT  
116 97006 A: Gonets D1-4
B: Gonets D1-5
C: Gonets D1-6
D: Cosmos 2337
E: Cosmos 2338
F: Cosmos 2339
14 Feb 1997 at 03:47 UT  
117 98036 A: Cosmos 2352
B: Cosmos 2353
C: Cosmos 2354
D: Cosmos 2355
E: Cosmos 2356
F: Cosmos 2357
15 Jun 1998 at 22:58 UT Partial failure, the satellites were delivered in wrong orbit. Refer to: Cosmos 2357
118 n/a 6 satellites, probably 3 military Strela 3 and 3 Gonets D1 27 Dec 2000 at 18:56 UT Failure: 3rd stage failed (control system)
119 01032 Coronas F 31 Jul 2001 at 08:00 UT  
120 01058 A: Gonets D1-12
B: Gonets D1-13
C: Gonets D1-14
D: Cosmos 2384
E: Cosmos 2385
F: Cosmos 2386
28 Dec 2001 at 03:24 UT  
121 04052 A: Sich 1M
C: MK-1TS Mikron
24 Dec 2004 at 11:20 UT Partial failure: upper stage shutdown one minute early. Lower than expect orbit: 285 x 644 km
122 09003 Coronas Foton 30 Jan 2009 at 13:30 UT Last launch
Notes: All launches from Plesetsk

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