We use the name 'Europe' to simplify naming. In fact, it may stand for the ESA or the ESRO. On 27 Feb 1961 the COPERS (COmmission Préparatoire Européenne pour la Recherche Spatiale) was created. In 1964 the ESRO (European Space Research Organization) was created to develop satellites. The ELDO (European Launcher Development Organisation) was in charge of the development of the Europa launcher. The Convention establishing this organisation came into force on 29 February 1964. This multiple structure merged into a single organization ESA (European Space Agency) on 31 May 1975. Members of ESA: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, and Switzerland. Canada is an associate member. Luxemburg joined on 30 Jun 2005. Hungary, Czech Republic, Estonia and Romania are cooperating states (PECS). Other countries willing to join: Poland, Slovak Republic and Ukraine. The convention says: the purpose of the agency shall be to provide for and to promote, for exclusively peaceful purposes, cooperation among European states in space research and technology and their space applications, with a view to their being used for scientific purposes and for operating space applications systems. The agency is directed by a council composed of representatives of member states. The Director General is the chief executive of the agency and its legal representative. The ESA headquarters are in Paris. The major establishments of ESA are: The European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC), Noordwijk, Netherlands; The European Space Operations Center (ESOC), Darmstadt, Germany; ESRIN, Fracasti, Italy.
Esro 1B (Boreas)