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Launch vehicles

Section directed by Jean-Jacques Serra

A: Ares Ariane ASLV Athena Atlas    
B: Black Arrow            
C: Cyclone Conestoga Cosmos B Cosmos C      
D: Delta Diamant Dnepr        
H: H1 & H2            
I: ISAS vehicles ISRO vehicles          
K: Kuaizhou KSLV          
L:   Long March          
M: Minotaur Molniya Mu        
N: N1 & N2 NASDA vehicles          
P: Pegasus Proton PSLV        
R: Rokot            
S: Safir Scout Semiorka Shavit Shtil SLV 3 Soyuz
  Start STS          
T: Taurus Thor Titan        
V: Vanguard VLS          
Z: Zenit            


World Launch Vehicle Overview


Vehicle First launch LEO capacity (kg) GTO capacity (kg) Comments
         
CIS (Sheldon / DoD)       Detailed soviet chart here
Semiorka (A / SL1) 4 Oct 1957 1300   2-stage (--> 1958)
Luna (A1 / SL2) (Aug 1958)
2 Jan 1959
    3-stage (--> 1960)
Vostok (A1 / SL3) 15 May 1960 4700   3-stage
Molniya (A2e / SL6) (10 Oct 1960)
4 Feb 1961
  1600 (THEO) 4-stage, Molniya or Prognoz orbit
Cosmos B (B1 / SL7) 16 Mar 1962 450   2-stage (--> 1977), 144 launches
Voskhod (A2 / SL4) 16 Nov 1963 5500   3-stage
Cosmos C (C1 / SL8) 18 Aug 1964 1400   2-stage
Proton (D / SL9) 16 Jul 1965 12500   2-stage (--> 1968)
Cosmos (F1r / SL11) 17 Sep 1966     2-stage (--> 1971)
Soyuz (A2 / SL4) 28 Nov 1966 7500   3-stage
Soyuz ST late 2005   3200 from Kourou
Proton (D1e / SL12) 10 Mar 1967   4400 (GEO) 4-stage
Cyclone 2 (F1m / SL11) 27 Oct 1967 4000   2-stage
N1 (G / SL15?) (21 Feb 1969)     Lunar vehicle launcher
Proton (D1 / SL13) 16 Nov 1968 20000   3-stage
Cyclone 3 (F2 / SL14) 24 Jun 1977 5500   3-stage
Zenit (J1 / SL16) 21 Jun 1985 15000   2-stage
Energia (K1 / SL17) 15 May 1987 140000 18000 (GEO) shuttle, 2 successful flights
Start 25 Mar 1993 500   5-stage
Rokot 26 Dec 1994 1850   3-stage (RS18K)
Shtil 7 Jul 1998 430 kg   3-stage, converted R-29RM (RSM-54), submarine launch
Dnepr 21 Apr 1999 3000   2-stage, converted SS-18 (R36-M2 / 15A18M)
Proton M + Briz M 7 Apr 2001 21000 5500 (GTO)  
Strela 5 Dec 2003 1700   modified RS-18
Soyuz 2 19 Oct 2006 7480    
Angara 1 9 Jul 2014 3500   Briz KM or Bloc 1 top stage. To replace Cosmos 3 and Cyclone 3 launchers
Angara A3        
Angara A5 23 Dec 2014   5200 Briz M top stage / launch from Plesetsk
Cyclone 2K 2006 2000   modernised version of Cyclone 2
http://www.unitedstart.com/Tsyklon2/
Aurora ?     launch from Christmas Island
Cyclone 4 2006 5500 1800 Cyclone 3 with a Fregat upper stage. Launch from Alcantara
Zenit 2       Launch from Tyuratam
Zenit 2S 2014?     SL-37
Launch from Sea Launch
Soyuz STK late-2011     Soyuz to be launched from Kourou
Soyuz 2-1v 28 Dec 2013 2850   NK-33-1 core motor, no strap-ons
Baiterek/Baitarek ?     Updated Zenit vehicle, launched from Tyuratam
Proton Medium 2018   5000 6-engine first stage
Proton Light 2019   3600 4-engine first stage
         
United States        
Vanguard (6 Dec1957)
17 Mar 1958
25   3-stage (--> 1959), 3 successful flights
Juno 1 31 Jan 1958 40   4-stage (--> 1959)
Thor Able (17 Aug 1958)
11 Oct 1958
200   3-stage (--> Thor Delta)
Juno 2 6 Dec 1958 50   4-stage (--> 1961)
Atlas 18 Dec 1958 1300   Mercury launcher
Thor Agena 28 Feb 1959 1000   2-stage (--> LTT Agena)
Atlas Able (26 Nov 1959)     3-stage (--> 1960)
Atlas Agena (26 Feb 1960)
24 May 1960
2300   2-stage (--> 1978)
Thor Ablestar 13 Apr 1960     2-stage (--> 1965)
Thor Delta (13 May 1960)
18 Aug 1960
    3-stage, (--> Delta)
Scout (4 Dec 1960)
16 Feb 1961
    4-stage (--> 1994)
Atlas Centaur (8 May 1962)
16 Feb 1961
5600 2250 4-stage (--> Atlas 2)
Saturn 1 29 Jan 1964 6800   2/3-stage (--> 1965)
Titan 2 08 Apr 1964 3500   Gemini launcher
Titan 3A (01 Sep 1964)
10 Dec 1964
    3-stage (--> 1965)
Titan 3C 18 Jun 1965 11300 4500 3-stage + boosters (--> Titan 34D)
Saturn 1B 05 Jul 1966 12900   Apollo launcher
Titan 3B 29 Jul 1966 3500 700 (THEO) 3-stage (--> Titan 34B)
LTTAT Agena 09 Aug 1966 2000   2-stage (--> 1972)
Saturn 5 09 Nov 1967 140000   Lunar vehicle launcher
Titan 3D 15 Jun 1971 13000   3-stage + boosters (--> Titan 34D)
Delta 29xx 09 Nov 1972 2000 720 2/3-stage (--> Delta 39xx)
Delta 39xx 13 Dec 1975   1250 2/3 stage (--> Delta 2)
STS 12 Apr 1981 24200 5900 (with IUS) Space Shuttle
Titan 34D 30 Oct 1982 15800 1900 2/3-stage + boosters (--> Titan 4)
Delta-2 69xx 14 Feb 1989 4000 1400 Interim Delta 2
Titan 4 14 Jun 1989 17700 5500 2/3-stage + boosters
Pegasus 5 Apr 1990 400   air launched rocket
Delta-2 79xx 26 Nov 1990 5000 1610  
Atlas 2 7 Dec 1991 6400 2700 2-stage
Atlas 2A 10 Jun 1992 6800 2900 2-stage
Atlas 2AS 16 Dec 1993 8400 3600 2-stage + boosters
Taurus 13 Mar 1994 1400   4-stage
Antares was Taurus 2 2013? 6300    
Pegasus XL (27 Jun 1994)
9 Mar 1996
455   air launched rocket
Athena 1 (15 Aug 1995)
23 Aug 1997
1000   3-stage
Athena 2 7 Jan 1998     3-stage
Conestoga (23 Oct 1995) 2100   4-stage
Zenit Sea Launch 28 Mar 1996     3-stage
Titan 4B 23 Feb 1997 22000 4-stage
Delta 3 (27 Aug 1998)
23 Aug 2000
8346 3810  
Minotaur 27 Jan 2000 550   440 kg in polar orbit
Atlas 3A 24 May 2000   4200 it uses the russian RD180 engines on the first stage
Atlas 3B 21 Feb 2002   4500  
Kister 1 2000? 500 kg    
Delta-4 20 Nov 2002   4200 to 13100 kg  
Atlas 5 401/402 21 Aug 2002 12500 kg 4950 kg  
Atlas 5 431   n/a 7640 kg  
Atlas 5 501/502   10300 kg 3970 kg  
Atlas 5 551/552   20520 kg 8670 kg  
Delta 4 Heavy     13000  
Falcon 1 (24 Mar 2006)      
Zenit Land Sea Launch 2007     3-stage
Falcon 5 ?     engine redundancy, all stages are designed for reuse
Falcon 9 4 Jun 2010 12500 4640 should cost $27 million max for launch!
Launch from SLC-40 at Cape Canaveral
Falcon 9 Heavy 2014? 53000    
Ares I-X 2009      
Super Strypi (4 Nov 2015)
2015
  300 kg  
Virgin Galactic LauncherOne 2016 400 kg   2-stage
should cost $10 million per launch (airborne)
200 kg to sun-synchronous
400 kg to LEO
Firefly Alpha   400 kg   Burns Liquified Natural Gas (LNG), 2-stage
Rocket Lab USA       to LEO
Vector R 2018 50 kg    
Vector H 2019 105 kg    
         
France        
Diamant A 26 Nov 1965 80   3-stage (--> 1967)
Diamant B 10 Mar 1970 115   3-stage (--> 1973)
Diamant BP4 6 Feb 1975 150   3-stage (--> 1975)
         
Japan        
Lambda-4S (26 Sep 1966)
11 Feb 1970
20   4-stage, 1 successful flight
Mu-4S (25 Sep 1970)
16 Feb 1971
75   3-stage (--> 1972)
Mu-3C 16 Feb 1974 85   3-stage (--> 1976)
N1 9 Sep 1975     3-stage (--> 1982)
Mu-3H 19 Feb 1977 100   3-stage (--> 1979)
Mu-3S1 17 Feb 1981 200   3-stage (--> 1984)
N2 11 Feb 1981   350 3-stage (--> 1987)
Mu-3S2 8 Jan 1985 400    
H1 13 Aug 1986 3200 1100 3-stage (--> 1995)
H2 3 Feb 1994 10500 4000 (2000 to GEO) 2-stage + boosters
Mu 5 12 Feb 1997 1800   solid 3-stage. worth $60 million
J1 cancelled 870   solid 3-stage
consist of H2 strap-on first stage + 2 stages of Mu-3S2
H2A202 29 Aug 2001   4000 $71 million
H2A2022 ?   4250 2 little boosters
H2A2024 4 Feb 2002   4600 4 little boosters
H2A mod ?   6000 2 additional main engines
H2A212 2008? 18000 7500 H2A202 heavy version with a lateral body
H2A222 ? 23000 9500 2 lateral bodies
H2B 10 Sep 2009 16500 8000 2 engines on the main body and 4 boosters
Epsilon 14 Sep 2013 1200   3 stages
H3 2021   6500 MHI-built, new LE-9 first stage engine
         
China        
Long March 1D no launches? 1000   liquid/solid 3-stage
Long March 1 (01 Nov 1969)
24 Apr 1970
    3-stage (--> 1971)
Long March 2A (05 Nov 1974)     No successful flight
FB 1 10 Aug 1972     2-stage (LEO) (--> 1981)
Long March 2C 26 Nov 1975 2500 1000 + PKM liquid 2-stage
14 success
Long March 3 29 Jan 1984 5000 1400 liquid 3-stage
Long March 4 6 Sep 1988 4000 1550 liquid 3-stage
Long March 2E 16 Jul 1990 9200 3370 with PKM liquid 2-stage + 4 liquid strap-ons
Long March 2D 9 Aug 1992 3300   liquid 2-stage
Long March 3A 8 Feb 1994 7200 2500 liquid 2-stage
Long March 3B (14 Feb 1996)
19 Aug 1997
  4800 liquid 3-stage + 4 liquid strap-ons
consist of Long March 3A with 4 2E strap-ons
Long March 3C 28 Oct 2006   3800 liquid 3-stage + 2 liquid strap-ons
consist of Long March 3A with 2 2E strap-ons
Long March 4C 11 Nov 2007      
Long March 4B 8S exp. 2001 7800 2670 liquid 3-stage + 8 strap-ons
Kuaizhou 25 Sep 2013     available commercially from 2017
KT 1 (15 Sep 2002) 100   4-stage
Long March 5 3 Nov 2016 25000 14000  
Long March 6 19 Sep 2015 1080    
Long March 7 exp 2016 13500   5500 kg to sun-synchronous orbit (700 km)
Long March 11 exp 2016      
         
United Kingdom        
Black Arrow (1 Sep 1970)
28 Oct 1971
    3-stage
One successful flight
SpaceLS 2020?     aims to lift cubesats in LEO
         
Europe        
Europa 1 F8 (30 Nov 1968)     No successful flight
Europa 2 (05 Nov 1971)     No successful flight
Ariane 1 24 Dec 1979   1700 3-stage (--> 1986)
Ariane 3 4 Aug 1984   2580 3-stage + boosters
Ariane 2 30 May 1986   2065 3-stage
Ariane 4, 44LP 15 Jun 1988 8300 4030  
Ariane 4, 44L 4 Jun 1989 9600 4460  
Ariane 4, 40 22 Jan 1990 4900 2020 3-stage
Ariane 4, 42P 20 Nov 1990 6100 2740  
Ariane 4, 44P 4 Apr 1991 6900 3290  
Ariane 4, 42L 12 May 1993 7400 3350  
Ariane 5 (4 Jun 1996)
30 Oct 1997
18000 6800 liquid 2-stage + 2 solid strap-ons
Ariane 5 ME mid-2018      
Vega 2012 2000   from Kourou ELA1, 3 solid stages and a liquid 4th stage
Vega C 2018      
Ariane 6-2 2020 7000 5000 2 boosters
Ariane 6-4 2020   10000 4 boosters
         
India        
SLV 3 (10 Aug 1979)
18 Jul 1980
40   4-stage (--> 1983)
ASLV (24 Mar 1987)
20 May 1992
150   solid 4-stage + 2 solid strap-ons (--> 1994)
PSLV (20 Sep 1993)
15 Oct 1994
3000   solid/liquid 4-stage + 2 solid strap-ons
GSLV 18 Apr 2001 8000 2500 3-stage
GSLV 2 5 Jan 2014   2200 3-stage
GSLV 3 2016?   4000 3-stage
         
Israel        
Shavit 19 Sep 1988 150   solid 3-stage
         
Brazil        
VLS (2 Nov 1997) 350   Next launch planned in 2006
         
Ukraine        
Cyclone 4 planned in 2006     to be launched from Alcantara, Brasil
Similar to A Cyclone 3 with an additional Fregat upper stage
         
South Korea        
KSLV 1 (25 Aug 2009)
30 Jan 2013
100 n/a Two-stage rocket, first stage based on Angara.
Launch from Naro Space Center on Oenaro Island.
         
Iran        
Safir (17 Aug 2008)
02 Feb 2009
    Two-stage
         
North Korea        
Unha 2 (Apr 2009) 100?    
Unha 3 (Apr 2012)
12 Dec 2012
150?    
         
Other        
Rocket Lab   110   3-stage, carbon-composite
should cost less than $5 million


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